The Silver Lining

Lessons & Learnings from a salesforce certified technical architect.

Posts Tagged ‘Apex

A Beginner’s Guide to Object-Oriented Programming with Apex: 3. Polymorphism

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This is part 3 in the series “A Beginner’s Guide to Object-Oriented Programming with Apex” and will cover the aspect of Polymorphism. For other posts in this series see the links below.

A Beginner’s Guide to Object-Oriented Programming with Apex

  1. Introduction
  2. Encapsulation
  3. Abstraction
  4. Polymorphism (this post)

What the hell is Polymorphism?

Polymorphism has the funkiest name and is my favourite aspect of OOP. If done correctly you will feel like a proper genius.

Originating from Greek words, polymorphism more or less means “many forms”. This gives away very little unless you know polymorphism quite well but essentially polymorphism describes the ability of a type e.g. a set of differing Apex classes, to be used in similar ways without knowing much about those classes. An immediate example on the platform is the Type.format() static method available on Integers, DateTime, etc**. Although each of the Types represents something different this method does a similar thing for each i.e. turns them into a String but does this in a different way for each type. Which brings me to a definition of Polymorphism:

Polymorphism describes a pattern in object-oriented programming in which classes have different functionality while sharing a common interface.

Let’s take this academic statement and make it more concrete by looking at an example.

**I’ve assumed that these “primitives” are subclasses of a shared superclass or implementations of a shared interface.

How do we implement Polymorphism?

Polymorphism in Apex requires an Apex Interface to be implemented or Class that can be extended by other Apex classes e.g. Virtual or Abstract classes. The implementing or extending classes can then be used in a predictable, consistent way even though their types are different from one another. Time for an example.

Imagine that we need to display the original price and discounted price for a set of completely different products. We want to use a single Visualforce table to do this and with the bare minimum of VF code whilst modelling these products in a reusable and extensible way. We start off by defining an interface like so:

public interface Product {

    Any class that implements this interface must

    have methods with the following signatures


  Decimal getDiscount();

  Decimal getPrice();

  String getName();


Any class that implements this interface has to implement methods that match the two method signatures that have been defined.

Now we create two categories of products, one for fruit and the other for finance.

/** Fruit Products Class **/

public with sharing class FruitProduct implements Product {

  private final Decimal discountedRate = 0.85;

  private Decimal price;

  private String name;

  // The Constructor

  public FruitProduct(String name, Decimal price) {

    this.price = price; = name;


  // Price method implemented due to contract set by interface

  public Decimal getPrice() {

    return price;


  // Discount method implemented due to contract set by interface

  public Decimal getDiscount() {

    return price * discountedRate;


  // Method to retrieve product name

  public String getName() {

    return name;



/** Financial Products Class **/

public with sharing class FinancialProduct Implements Product {

  private final Decimal discountedRate = 0.45;
  private final Integer hiddenCost = 100;
  private Decimal price;

  private String name;
  // The Constructor

  public FinancialProduct(String name, Decimal price) {

    this.price = price; = name;


  // Price method implemented due to contract set by interface

  public Decimal getPrice() {

    return price;


  // Discount method implemented due to contract set by interface

  public Decimal getDiscount() {

    return (price + hiddenCost) * discountedRate;


  // Method to retrieve product name

  public String getName() {

    return name;



Notice that these classes both implement the same interface and therefore some of their methods have the same signatures. However the calculation of the discount is different in each class! As the author of these classes the inner workings of the getDiscount methods could do anything that you can imagine – they could use other classes and methods, make web service callouts etc. without impacting their intended polymorphic behaviour.

But how will we use two different types of Apex class in one VF table? The answer is in their Polymorphic capabilities! So how can we apply this? Let’s start with the page.

<apex:page controller="ProductController">
      <apex:pageBlockTable value="{!allProducts}" var="p">
          <apex:facet name="header">Product Name</apex:facet>
          <apex:outputText value="{!}" />
          <apex:facet name="header">Price</apex:facet>
          <apex:outputText value="£{!p.price}" />
          <apex:facet name="header">Discounted Price</apex:facet>
          <apex:outputText value="£{!}" />

Notice how we only iterate over a single list! Let’s see how this is done in the controller.

public with sharing class ProductController {
  // This list can hold any product that implements the Product interface
  public List<Product> allProducts{get;set;}

  public ProductController() {
    allProducts = new List<Product>();

    // Instantiate some fruit and financial products
    FruitProduct banana = new FruitProduct('Banana', 1);
    FruitProduct dragonFruit = new FruitProduct('Dragon Fruit', 2.50); 

    FinancialProduct mortgage = new FinancialProduct('Mortgage', 100);
    FinancialProduct spreadBet = new FinancialProduct('Spread Bet', 5);

    // And add them to the list

Looking inside the controller we see that the list allProducts is of type Product which isn’t a class but an interface. By doing this we are saying, “create a list that is able to contain any instantiated Apex class that implements the Product interface” i.e. the list can hold any Financial or Fruit Product, or in fact any other class that might later be created that implements this interface. The cool thing is that our Visualforce page (or developer) doesn’t have to know the exact type of class that’s being passed, all it knows is that a particular method will be available for it to call. This is very powerful and is a common use for polymorphism.

Another common use is within ISV applications that need to be extensible. Such an application might provide several interfaces that an external person/company could implement to extend the application’s functionality. For example, the application may have a set of interfaces that describe a particular way of creating classes that allow the external party to implement a custom outbound (from SFDC) integration from within the app. This way the creators of the ISV app don’t have to code every conceivable integration into their app but instead allow others the ability to do this without exposing the inner workings of their app to the world!

Why Should I Use Polymorphism?

Polymorphism is amazingly powerful once you’ve got the hang of it. It requires you to plan your application in a fair amount of detail and results in code that is loosely coupled, easy to extend, faster to write and generally more robust. As if that wasn’t enough it also makes you feel really smart!

This concludes the series on object-oriented programming and I’m sure that I’ve raised more questions than provided answers. The topic is huge and I encourage you to grab a book on OOP because it is key to becoming an expert software developer no matter which language you use.

If you’d like a bit more info on the topic of OOP and are around for DF14 look out for my talk where I’ll work through an example of applying OOP to code when connecting to external APIs.

Written by Wes

September 8, 2014 at 10:02 am

Posted in SalesForce

Tagged with , , ,

A Beginner’s Guide to Object-Oriented Programming with Apex: 2. Abstraction

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This is part 3 in the series “A Beginner’s Guide to Object-Oriented Programming with Apex” and will cover the aspect of Abstraction. For other posts in this series see the links below.

A Beginner’s Guide to Object-Oriented Programming with Apex

  1. Introduction
  2. Encapsulation
  3. Abstraction (this post)
  4. Polymorphism

What the hell is Abstraction?

Abstraction is a very interesting and surprisingly simple concept. At its core it’s about context and if Abstraction were a company it’s motto would be “Provide the right tools and data at the right time.”. There are many analogies in the “real world” e.g.

  • The Platform is an abstraction of the complex, underlying hardware and software that provides us with a simplified set of tools that can achieve the same level of benefit as those complex, underlying hardware and software!
  • A technical architect and developer both experience the creation of software but the developer’s perspective is far more detailed and requires different knowledge and tools. A technical architect has a different perspective and usually is not interested in the same information and tools that the developer needs. The detail of the developer’s work is abstracted from the technical architect although they will have a higher-level understanding of the same applications.
  • The driver of the car has a very different perspective (interface, information, goals, tools) than the engineer of the same car. Imagine if you had to know how all the parts of a car work together in order to drive! Those details are abstracted from the driver.

Where is this applicable to developers on the platform? Ever created a Visualforce component or Apex utility class? Well you my friend you are already using abstraction!

This sounds a lot like Encapsulation!

Abstraction and Encapsulation go hand in hand but they are different. Encapsulation is one of the ways you can achieve abstraction but does not encompass the entire concept. As stated previously Encapsulation is about hiding data and logic-implementations whereas Abstraction is described as providing the appropriate perspective to the appropriate consumer.

How do we Abstract?

There is a lot that is already abstracted on the platform e.g. 

  • The declarative features of the platform abstract the complexity that you would have to employ in order to replicate them through code.
  • The mechanisms for CRUD access to data are abstracted through SObjects (using a technique called ORM) in order to simplify this access.
  • Apex and Visualforce give you the ability to encapsulate and abstract complexity and expose this to consumers (other code and/orwebservices) through simplified interfaces.
    • These abstractions can be very sophisticated as has been shown several times on Andy Fawcett’s blog e.g. the domain, selector and service layer patterns in this repo provide patterns that allow the implementor to create simple mechanisms to connect and exercise complex logic. Those that use this logic need not be aware of the complexity contained beneath.

So how do you use abstraction? This is a topic that could take a year at University to teach but let me provide two examples, one simple and another more complex.

1. Simple Example

Calculating the area of a circle requires some specialised knowledge so you may want to create an abstraction of this calculation i.e. give other developers a way to calculate the area of a circle without having to know the actual calculation.

public Double calculateArea( Integer radius ) {

  return (radius)*(radius)*(Math.acos(-1)); // Pi = Math.acos(-1)


Obviously this is a very simple example but you could imagine a public method that is a lot more complex and whose inner workings you don’t really care to know too much about!

Note that this could also be used as an example of encapsulation! The difference however is that when considering this code as:

  • Encapsulation ~ we are hiding the implementation.
  • Abstraction ~ we are providing the appropriately simplified interface in order to access this functionality.

A subtle but important difference.

2. Complex Example

The complex examples considers a potential design pattern for your Apex code.

This example works at a higher level of abstraction than the previous one (pretty meta huh?) but the concept is similar. A developer creates a class (or set of classes) that contain all of complex business logic for the marketing department (this might be called your Service Layer if you were layering your application logic). This logic is then consumed by several other platform components such as trigger handlers, page controllers and bulk apex classes. The class methods and properties expose simplified interfaces to this logic and the details of the logic are abstracted from the consumers.

The benefit of abstraction here is that (in theory) you don’t need understand the details of the logic within the business logic classes you just need to understand their general purpose, know the method signature for the appropriate method and if necessary pass it the right data to get the expect result. And

Why Should I Use Abstraction?

If you’re a developer – much as with Encapsulation – you’ve probably been using Abstraction without even knowing it. The benefits are that by employing abstraction you’re making things easier for you and your team by presenting only the relevant information and tools at the appropriate time. This means a less confusing world, so less time is spent comprehending an application, fewer errors are made and everyone is happier.

Next time I’ll talk about my favourite part of these OOP principles, Polymorphism. It’s more than just a fun word to say!

Written by Wes

July 31, 2014 at 4:32 pm

Posted in Design, SalesForce

Tagged with , , ,

A Beginner’s Guide to Object-Oriented Programming with Apex: 1. Encapsulation

with 4 comments

This is part 2 in the series “A Beginner’s Guide to Object-Oriented Programming with Apex” and will cover the aspect of Encapsulation.

A Beginner’s Guide to Object-Oriented Programming with Apex

  1. Introduction
  2. Encapsulation (this post)
  3. Abstraction
  4. Polymorphism

What the hell is Encapsulation?

Encapsulation isn’t a tricky concept in itself but some confusion does arise from it’s close relationship with Abstraction (to be covered in my next post). Broadly it is defined as one of, or both of the following:

  1. An information hiding mechanism.
  2. A bundling of data and methods that operate on that data.

These are pretty abstract statements but in reality are very simple. I will demystify them with examples below but for now let’s use an analogy:

Imagine you have a watch (or if you have one just consider it, don’t worry about the imagining part) that tells you the date and time. You can adjust the date and time using buttons/knobs/switches but you have no idea what happens inside the watch, just that it results in the date and time changing. You have some data (the date and time), you have some methods to operate on that data (buttons/knobs/switches) and there is a whole lot of stuff going on in the background that you don’t know about (and it’s better that way, imagine you had to adjust all those bits and pieces yourself).

That’s encapsulation baby! Read the rest of this entry »

Written by Wes

June 17, 2014 at 6:09 pm

Posted in Apex, SalesForce

Tagged with , ,

A Beginner’s Guide to Object-Oriented Programming with Apex: 0. An Introduction

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Apex has come a long way in the past few years, and as Salesforce has grown so has the number of super smart people working on the platform. There are lots of guides on how to do fancy things using JavaScript, Apex and Visualforce as well as many more whitepapers on the topics of governances and standards. However I think there is a gap, and I’d like to plug it.

Over the next few weeks and months I will be releasing articles that describe and show the basics of object-oriented programming (OOP) with Apex. My approach will be to make these articles as modular and simple as possible. The target audience? Developers with a-teeny-bit-of-experience through to those who have tons of experience but never had any formal training in OOP.

A Beginner’s Guide to Object-Oriented Programming with Apex

  1. Introduction (this post)
  2. Encapsulation
  3. Abstraction
  4. Polymorphism

What the hell is OOP?

Good question, and although many agree on some elements of OOP there is still a divergent view in the details. Contrasting it to what came before helps though.

The programming paradigm prior to OOP essentially had everyone writing code as your would an essay i.e. a single long text with one line written (and executed) after the other. There were no classes, no methods, no GOTO statements even (if you go far back enough that is). If you needed the same complex calculation in 5 parts of your application you had to write it 5 times. This is obviously a bad idea and over time the geniuses that created computer programming started inventing bits and pieces of engineering to make it easier to create, maintain and extend their code. Collectively, these features together with their experience were the beginnings of OOP.

The most commonly cited features of OOP are described below.


A way to hide state (or private data), but also – confusingly – a way to bundle data and capabilities to operate on that data.

As an example consider a sausage making machine, you pour some stuff into one end and get sausages out of the other without needing to know the internal workings. The inner workings are encapsulated within the machine.


This is one of the trickiest concepts because it is relative, you can have levels of abstraction and it essentially means providing the appropriate level of information and data at the requested level.

With my previous example, if you are the sausage maker then you just need to know what stuff to insert into which part of the machine. But, if you were the sausage machine repair man you would need to have the tools, knowledge and access to all the bits and bobs inside of the machine. These are different levels of abstraction.


A controversial aspect since some languages think that inheritance is bad. In short it is the capability of a class or object to have certain methods and attributes passed down to them through a hierarchy.

Now that I’ve started the sausage story I can’t stop! All sausages share certain qualities e.g. they’re all encased in something, have some type of contents and (usually) need to be cooked before being eaten. You could represent these common attributes in a parent class and have specific types of sausages (pork, chicken, blood pudding) “subclass this superclass” i.e. inherit from it.


Polymorphism is extremely rewarding when you get it right because it just feels smart. In short it allows you to define ways of dealing with data without knowing exactly how that data will be defined in the future.

To finish off the sausage story (anyone else hungry?) you could put any type of meat into the machine but in the end you will still always get a sausage i.e. provided that a certain type of input (any type of meat and spice) is provided to the machine it “knows” what to do with it (make delicious sausages) even though the types of sausages may have differences.

Don’t worry if these concepts haven’t clicked just yet, each will be covered in detail in future posts.

These concepts are obviously academic and language agnostic but Apex makes them available to you through the constructs of classes, methods and attributes of those classes, instances of those classes.

A note on terminology. In the Salesforce world an Object is most commonly used to refer to a data entity e.g. Account or CustomObject__c. In the OOP paradigm an Object is an instance of a Class i.e. MyClass.cls is an Apex class which provides the blueprint for instances of itself. This becomes clearer with an example:

MyClass myObject = new MyClass();


MyClass is the class, and myObject is an instance of that class AKA an object. Got it? Great.

Why Should I Use OOP?

Because it will make you a better programmer and it doesn’t hurt with the ladies/men (delete as appropriate). Your code will be better, you will end up doing less boring work and it will be easier (and quicker) to fix bugs. I guarantee it.

Next Time on Th3Silverlining

My next post will delve into the feature called Encapsulation so hit the subscribe button to find out when it’s published. See y’all then.

Written by Wes

June 6, 2014 at 5:10 pm

Salesforce: Universal Batch Scheduling Class

with 2 comments

Mark David Josue. All Rights Reserved.I’d like to propose a new way of working with scheduled batch classes. I’ve worked on several hundred Salesforce projects in the past few years and often see batch scheduling classes being created per scheduling requirement and it grinds my OCD – not in a good way. In most cases you should only need one “Batch Scheduler” per Org, let me demonstrate how and why.

The Universal Batch Scheduler™


Let’s assuming you have a batch class that you need to run on a repeated schedule*, such a class signature is given below. That class will have to obey some conventions such as implementing the Batchable interface as shown in the standard documentation.

global class MyBatch implements Database.Batchable<SObject> {

// …


* For one off, schedule execution of batch classes you can use the System.ScheduleBatch() method.

The Scheduler

Now you might be tempted to created a scheduled Apex class specifically for this batch class, but by using the principle of polymorphism you could create a universal scheduler instead.

First of all you’ll need to implement the required interface for scheduled Apex classes as shown below.

global class BatchScheduler implements Schedulable {

// …


Next assign global, class-level variables which will be used to access the parameter values required when executing a batch class. Note that we’re creating a variable called “batchClass” whose type is the interface Database.Batchable. This means that any class that implements this interface can be assigned to this variable, this behaviour is called polymorphism.

  global Database.Batchable<SObject> batchClass{get;set;}
  global Integer batchSize{get;set;} {batchSize = 200;}

And finally implement the method required by the Scheduleable interface and use the variables to kick off the execution of a batch class.

  global void execute(SchedulableContext sc) {
   database.executebatch(batchClass, batchSize);

Et voila! You now have a class that can be used to schedule any batch class in your Org. The final code being:

global class BatchScheduler implements Schedulable {
  global Database.Batchable<SObject> batchClass{get;set;}
  global Integer batchSize{get;set;} {batchSize = 200;}

  global void execute(SchedulableContext sc) {
   database.executebatch(batchClass, batchSize);

In order to use it you would have to initiate the schedule from an anonymous block (Developer Console, Eclipse, Mavensmate etc.). For example I would schedule my batch class using something like this:

// Instantiate the batch class
MyBatch myBatch = new MyBatch();

// Instantiate the scheduler
BatchScheduler scheduler = new BatchScheduler();

// Assign the batch class to the variable within the scheduler
scheduler.batchClass = myBatch;

// Run every day at 1pm
String sch = '0 0 13 * * ?';

System.schedule('MyBatch - Everyday at 1pm', sch, scheduler);

There may be cases where the universal batch scheduler is not appropriate i.e. special pre-work has to be done in the scheduling class, but in most cases I’ve seen it’ll do the job. Hopefully this’ll help you make your Orgs a little neater too.

Written by Wes

February 2, 2014 at 12:34 pm

Salesforce: JavaScript Remoting – a different way of thinking

with 6 comments


Remoting is awesome.

JavaScript Remoting for Apex operates in a very different paradigm from what you might be used to i.e. Visualforce pages have controllers and the two interact through action methods – where this might be a full form submission or some neat AJAX functionality. Remoting also calls controller methods but there is a gaping maw in terms of how the two work under the hood.

I’ve seen a few great articles on the syntax and example usage of JavaScript Remoting for Apex but when I started using it I came across a number domain differences that weren’t documented anywhere. Hopefully my list here will help you in the learning process. The best way to describe the new way of thinking is to examine the features set in contrast to “normal” Apex and Visualforce.

How JavaScript Remoting Differs

  • Pass parameters naturally i.e. the call matches the method signature syntactically instead of requiring <apex:param/>.
  • Action methods when called in “normal” Visualforce can only return NULL or a PageReference. Remoting allows you to return a wider range of data types, even objects and collections.
  • Remoting methods have no access to the view state e.g. if a static variable is initialised to some value (outside the remoting method) a remoting method will see this as NULL unless it is re-initialised in that method! Conversely if a remoting method sets a state variable value the scope of that value is only within that method.
  • It’s much faster. I’m building an application at the moment that is 95% backed by JS Remoting and when I show it to other developers they are struck dumb for at least 3 hours because of the speed.
  • Neater debugging info in the browser console. Salesforce has done a great job of providing feedback directly to the browser’s console log.
  • Each method call gets its own executional/transactional context i.e. fresh governor limits per call!

If I’ve missed anything please let me know and I’ll add it. Viva la knowledge crowdsourcing!

Written by Wes

February 5, 2012 at 4:05 pm

Salesforce: Dynamically determining the field type of a dynamically determined sObject

with 2 comments

This solution is quite difficult to find.

Call me crazy but I need to do this from time to time, and every time I do I can’t remember how I did it before! So I then trudge through the API and the Apex docs until I find the answer and that’s no mean feat in this specific case. Well, no more my friends because I’m putting it right here on this very blog!

In short the code below will return (as a String) the type of field that we’re working with. Neither the name of the object or the name of the field need to be known in advance.

    public static String getFieldType(String fieldName){
    	// Assume that "sObjectName" is populated elsewhere
	Schema.SObjectType t = Schema.getGlobalDescribe().get(sObjectName);

	Schema.DescribeSObjectResult r = t.getDescribe();
	Schema.DescribeFieldResult f = r.fields.getMap().get(fieldName).getDescribe();

	if (f.getType() == Schema.DisplayType.String){
		return 'String';
	} // .... else if

	return null;

Written by Wes

February 1, 2012 at 9:33 pm

Salesforce: Different percentage unit test code coverage in different environments

with 3 comments

Spot the difference.

Many people are finding that their tests are reporting different degrees of test-coverage in different environments. There are a few things to check if you are getting inconsistent results but there’s a new bug in the wild. Before you assume you have the bug make sure that you’ve:

  1. ‘Run All Tests’ in each environment. This will tell you a few things viz.
    • Perhaps there are tests failing that are bringing coverage in that environment down.
    • There are some tests that only fail when run in the browser e.g. MIXED_DML_EXCEPTION will not rear it’s head through the IDE.
  2. Click the ‘Compile all classes’ link above the Setup > Develop > Apex Classes view. I’m not sure when this lil’ bugger first appeared but it’s darn useful. Essentially it makes sure that all the dependencies in your code are fulfilled e.g. if page A uses controller B that in turn refers to utility class C it’ll make sure each of those pieces exist and work (as far as compilation goes at least).
  3. Double-check your test classes to make sure they’re not data dependent. If they are and you have different types/amounts of data in your respective environments it’s 100% feasible that the test coverage will be different.

Now if you’ve checked all of the above you might have been afflicted by a new bug which, for some reason, counts braces, whitespace (and more!) as being uncovered by your tests. This is preposterous of course and to fix it simply remove all test history from the deranged environment. Re-running the test and/or deploying them should now be back to normal!

Written by Wes

November 30, 2011 at 11:01 pm

Salesforce: Stop email being sent on user creation or password reset or …

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I’ve had to do this a few times but infrequently enough for me to forget how to do it each time. Forgetting things isn’t usually an issue because of our Google Overlords and their mighty The Google but it’s quite a journey down the rabbit hole to find this specific information.

The reasons it’s tricky to find is because the setting that controls whether an email is sent to the user on creation is not directly associated with users but with DML. Long story short you need to set a particular Database.DMLOption e.g.

User u = new User();
// Add some details here ...

// Set the DML options
Database.DMLOptions dlo = new Database.DMLOptions();
dlo.EmailHeader.triggerUserEmail = false;


Hopefully this information will now be easier to find next time I forget 🙂

Written by Wes

October 30, 2011 at 1:12 pm

Posted in Apex, SalesForce

Tagged with , , , , ,

Salesforce: Programmatically Populating Sample Data Post-Deployment

with 12 comments

I’m not sure if this concept is obvious when reading my previous post, so I thought I’d run through it with a specific example.

Rule one of packaging - Finish your bolognese first!

Let’s say that you’ve created what can only be described as an exemplary application in the form of a Managed Package. Although your user interface is beyond compare, you’d also like to populate some of your core objects with example data. Some options that immediately spring to mind are:

  1. Get the person that installs the package to call you, and you can do it post-installation.
  2. Get the person that installs the package to create sample data manually post-installation.
  3. Give the user a “Start Here” page with a call-to-action – such as a commandButton – that fetches the data from some API and parses into object data.

Option 3 is pretty excellent, especially now that you can package Remote Site Settings but I think we can do one better. And when I say better I mean simpler and with fewer potential points of failure. Read the rest of this entry »

Written by Wes

January 28, 2011 at 6:45 pm

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